- Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
Anti mullerian hormone is a constituent produced by granulosa cells in the follicles found in ovaries. It is created in primary follicles that advance from the primordial follicle stage. Primary follicles are microscopic to this stage and cannot be identified in the ultrasound scan.
AMH has the ability to relative size of the ovarian reserve. It is commonly used in IVF treatments as it can estimate the number of cells in the follicular reserve and predict the time of menopause.
- Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH)
FSH is a glycoprotein hormone found in anterior pituitary gland also known as hypophysis. It is a hormone found in both males and females humans as well as animals.
FSH works by stimulating the growth and recruitment of immature oocytes in the ovaries. It is usually measured in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, from day three to five. Women that are close to menopause have higher levels of FSH.
- Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Like FSH, the luteinizing hormone also known as LH is found in hypophysis in both males and females humans.
During menstruation, when the oestrogens are raised the receptors of LH are appeared on the mature follicle and they cause more production of estradiol. The increase of LH only lasts for 24 to 48 hours. The LH causes ovulation and it is necessary to maintain luteal function for the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle. When a pregnancy occurs, the levels of the LH are decreased and luteal function will be maintained from a different hormone, the hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) which is similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta.
- Estradiol (E2)
Estradiol is a steroid also known as the primary female sex hormone.
Some of the main activities of estradiol is the support of the vaginal lining, the cervical glands and the lining of the fallopian tubes. It also increases the growth of the myometrium. E2 is necessary to maintain ova in the ovaries. During the menstrual cycle, E2 is been produced by the growing follicle. Additionally in the luteal phase, E2, in combination with progesterone, prepares the endometrium for implantation.
Progesterone like estradiol, is a steroid hormone involved in menstrual cycle and pregnancy as well as in embryogenesis.
Progesterone is really important for a pregnancy to be maintained. It is produced in the ovaries, the placenta and the adrenal glands. It prepares the body for conception and pregnancy and also is able to regulate the monthly menstrual cycle.
- Prolactin (PRL)
Prolactin is also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin and is protein that helps women and other female mammals to produce milk.